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Objectives
Particle generation from implant components caused by frictional wear affect the surrounding peri-implant tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining implant and abutment materials on wear and particle release in a dynamical loading setup.

Methods
A customized dynamical loading machine was used to subject two implant materials (Titanium and Titanium- Zirconium alloy) paired with two different abutment materials (Titanium and Zirconia) to a cyclic loading set of 240.000 cycles (simulating 1 year of clinical use). The implant and abutment complex was immersed in corrosive liquid to collect particle debris and measure the release of corroded ions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze signs of wear on the components after testing and evaluate the size and composition of particle debris.

Results
Wear signs were evident in all material couplings. Particle debris was found on top, inside the implants, and on the abutment heads. The particle size ranged between 0.6 and 16.9 µm, with larger particles composed of Ti. Smaller-sized particles were found in the container liquid ranging from 0.253 to 1.7 µm compared to inside the implants ranging from 3.25 to 95.3 µm. Larger particles were found inside Tizr implants compared to Ti implants. Low levels of ions released due to corrosion were found when measuring content in surrounding liquid.

Significance
Particle generation is evident when subjecting dental implant and abutment couplings in a dynamic loading setup. Internally connected implants hinder the release of larger particles to surrounding container liquid.

Reference
Wear particle release at the interface of dental implant components: Effects of different material combinations. An in vitro study
Olander J, Ruud A, Wennerberg A, Stenport VF
Dental Materials Volume 38, Issue 3 March 2022, pages 508-516
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2022.01.001