Profiling of cyclic di-adenyl and -guanyl nucleotides and their precursors and degradation products in bacteria using LC–MS/MS -

The 3,3′-linked cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP), cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and c-GMP–AMP (cGAMP) are second messenger molecules in bacteria that regulate processes, such as biofilm formation, motility, virulence, stress response, and cell wall homeostasis.

Identification and cross-species comparison of in vitro phase I brevetoxin (BTX-2) metabolites in northern Gulf of Mexico fish and human liver microsomes by UHPLC-HRMS(/MS) -

Brevetoxins (BTX) are a group of marine neurotoxins produced by the harmful alga Karenia brevis. Numerous studies have shown that BTX are rapidly accumulated and metabolized in shellfish and mammals. However, there are only limited data on BTX metabolism in fish, despite growing evidence that fish serve as vectors for BTX transfer in marine food webs. In this study, we […]

Presence of 6PPD-quinone in runoff water samples from Norway using a new LC–MS/MS method -

The chemical 6PPD-quinone is highly toxic to some fish species of the Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus genera and is the oxidation product of the common car tire additive 6PPD. We present a new sample preparation method that involves liquid-liquid extraction of water samples followed by silica-based solid phase extraction prior to LC–MS/MS analysis. The new sample preparation method showed good […]

Algal ciguatoxin identified as source of ciguatera poisoning in the Caribbean -

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a severe seafood-borne disease, caused by the consumption of reef fish contaminated with Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) in the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic. However, C-CTXs have not been identified from their presumed algal source, so the relationship to the CTXs in fish causing illness remains unknown. This has hindered the development of […]