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Bacterial plaque adheres to resin based restorative materials to a larger extent than many other biomaterials, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Therefore, research has focused on adding antibacterial activity to such materials. One method has been to add soluble disinfectants such as chlorhexidine, benzalconium chloride, triclosan, octenidin, or antioxidants such as epigallocathechin to the resin part of composites and adhesives. Integrating antibacterial monomers or adding silver- or polyethylene nanoparticles to the resin or filler part have also been investigated, and a number of in vitro experiments have shown antibacterial activity of test samples of such materials. However, the leaching of soluble antibacterial substances tends to diminish over time and integrated antibacterials exhibit only surface activity. Another difficulty has been to determine concentrations of antibacterial substances not disturbing the mechanical properties of the material. In addition, a possible risk associated with nanoparticles must be taken into account.

In spite of these difficulties advanced chemical and technical research activity addressing this topic takes place both in the Western world, and in Japan and China. Many researchers are optimistic with regard to a successful development of antibacterial resin based restoratives. At present, however, clinical trials are missing.

Reference
Antibakterielle fyllinger – hvor står vi i dag?
Jacobsen N
Nor Tannlegeforen Tid 2014; 124: 616—22