A review of data collected for
polymer-based restorative materials
in the period 2005-2011.
Forty-two randomly picked materials with some of the shades available were examined for:
- Depth of cure [Table 1]
- Flexural strength [Table 2]
- Water sorption and water solubility [Table 3]
- Shade and color stability [Table 4]
Some of the data (2005-2006) has previously been published as a report [2008-123-2-20081232.pdf]. Please note that some of the materials examined may be withdrawn from the market, but may still be in the mouth of patients.
Table 1: Depth of cure measured using recommended curing times
Comment: The standard states that the depth of cure shall be no more than 0,5 mm below the value stated by the manufacturer.
Shades complying to the requirement, but with smaller depth of cure than claimed by the manufacturer are marked with blue.
Shades not complying with the requirement are marked with red.
Table 2: Flexural strength measured for the materials
Comment: The flexural strength of the materials tested varied from 82 MPa to 159 MPa for materials regarded as suitable for restorations of occlusal surfaces according to the manufacturer.
For materials not indicated for occlusal surfaces the flexural strength varied from 62 MPa to 122 MPa. All materials tested complied with the requirements of ISO 4049.
Table 3: Water sorption and water solubility for the materials
Comment: The requirement for water sorption is maximum 40 micrograms per cubic millimetres. Only one material did not comply with this requirement (marked with red in the table).
The requirement for water solubility is maximum 7,5 micrograms per cubic millimetres. All materials tested complied with this requirement.
Table 4: Shade and color stability for some shades of the materials
Comment: Most of the materials complied with the requirement stating that the color shall match closely to the manufacturer’s shade guide or nominated shade guide. The shades that were considered to not comply are marked with red and the statement “No” in Table 4.
Shades that had more than a slight change in color after immersion in water and with or without exposure to radiation from a Xenon lamp are marked with red and “Yes” in the table and do not comply with the requirement.
Several shades had only a slight change in color, which is acceptable according to the standard. These shades are marked with blue.
Table 5: Products, manufacturers and year tested
Table 6: Curing times and light activating sources used
Comment: The intensities (mW/cm2) of the LED light sources can be found in Table 2 of “Tested depth of cure and curing lamps”. The intensities of the quarts halogen sources can be found in Table 7.
Table 7: Light intensity of the quartz halogen sources
Comment: The measured of light intensity was performed by Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.
Hilde Molvig Kopperud, Senior Scientist & Hanne Wellendorf, Chief Engineer
The testing was performed on assignment of the Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.