print

Tested depth of cure and curing lamps

Depth of cure measurements were performed at NIOM according to ISO 4049. Test materials were Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) colour A3.

These composites were cured with 30 LED lamps using various curing methods and times. The data were collected from 2005 to 2011. Depth of cure and lamp measurement procedures are provided here.

Funding: The testing was performed on assignment of the Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden. The data (2005 to 2007) was previously published as a report (2008-126-8).

Table 1: Depth of cure of Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek Z250

Depth of cure of Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek Z250 using a range of curing durations and curing methods depending on the recommendations of the composite and lamp manufacturers.

Tetric EvoCeram recommendations and Filtek Z250 recommendations.

Comments Table 1: Depth of cure values lower than those given by the manufacturers and according to the ISO 4049 requirement are indicated in red. Depth of cure values lower than those given by the manufacturers, but within the limits of the ISO 4049 requirement, are indicated in green. According to the standard, the composite is cured by “direct contact” between the material and the light guide of the lamp. This situation will, in many cases, differ from a clinical situation in which the distance between the light guide and material surface is considerably larger, resulting in a decreased depth of cure.

 
Lamp
(given diameter of the light guide [mm])
Curing method
(*one curing method)
Curing time [s] Depth of cure [mm]
Filtek Z250, A3 Tetric EvoCeram, A3
bluephase (8;Power-Booster) Hi Power 20 3.1 2.8
10 2.2
Low Power 20 2.8 2.3
Soft Power 20 3.0 2.6
bluephase 16i (8) (A) High Power 10 s × 2 3.1 3.0
10 2.9 2.6
5 2.3
Low Power 30 3.1 2.8
bluephase 20i (8; turbo) Turbo 5 s × 4 3.4 3.1
5 s × 2 3.0; (B) 2.9; (B), (C)
5 2.3; (D)
High Power 20 3.0 2.9
15 2.9; (E) 2.7
10 2.4; (C)
Low Power 20 2.6 2.3
Soft start 20 3.0 2.8
15 2.5; (F)
bluephase G2 (10) High 20 3.1 2.8
10 2.3; (B)
Soft 20 3.0 2.6
10 2.1; (B)
Low 20 2.6 2.2
Celalux (8) Standard 20 3.2 2.8
Soft start (4 s) 20 2.9 2.7
Celalux 2 (7.5) Fast 20 3.0 2.8
10 2.3; (B), (G)
Soft start 20 2.9 2.8
Coltolux LED ((H)) * 20 2.6 2.2
Demetron A2 (8; turbo bent) * 10 s × 2 3.5 3.1
10; (I) 3.1 2.6; (B)
Demi L.E.D. (8) * 20 3.3 3.1
10 2.7; (B)
5 2.7; (J) 2.3; (J)
Demi Plus (8) *; pulsed 20 3.1 2.9
10 2.5; (B)
5; (K) 2.3 2.2
DioPower lighthead: DioCure470 (4) Program A 10 s × 2 2.4 2.0
10 2.1 1.7
DioPower lighthead: DioCure470 (8) Program A 10 s × 2 2.5 2.1
10 2.1 1.7
Elipar Freelight 2 (8) Standard 20 3.2 2.7
Elipar S10 (10) Standard 20 3.1 2.7
10 2.7; (L) 2.4; (B)
5; (M) 2.4 2.1
Flashlite 1401 ((H)) * 20 3.1 2.7
FlashMax ((H)) (N) * (1 s × 2) + (3 s × 6) = 20 s 3.6 3.0
(1 s × 1) + (3 s × 3) = 10 s 3.1; (O) 2.8; (B), (O)
(1 s × 2) + 3 s =  5 s 2.6; (P) 2.5; (P)
3 2.5 2.2
1 1.8 1.6
FlashMax ((H)) (Q) * (1 s × 2) + (3 s × 6) = 20 s 4.0 3.5
(1 s × 1) + (3 s × 3) = 10 s 3.5; (O) 3.1; (B), (O)
(1 s × 2) + 3 s = 5 s 3.1; (P) 2.8; (P)
3 2.8 2.5
1 2.2 2.0
FlashSoft ((H));
with cover
* 10 s × 2 3.1 2.5
10 2.6 2.2; (B), (O), (R)
5 2.1 1.7; (P)
FlashSoft ((H));
with cover and disposable tip
* 10 s × 2 2.3 2.4
10 2.0 2.1; (B), (O), (R)
5 1.8 1.8; (P)
FlashSoft ((H));
without cover and tip
* 10 s × 2 3.0 2.8
10 2.7 2.4; (B), (O), (R)
5 2.5 2.0; (P)
L.E.Demetron II (8) * 20 3.1 2.7
10 2.3
5 2.2 2.0
Ledex WL-070 (8) * 20 3.1 2.8
10 2.5; (B)
miniL.E.D (7.5) Fast 10 s × 2 3.0 2.7
10 2.3
Pulsed 10 s × 2 3.1 2.6
10 2.2
Stepped 20 3.1 2.6
Pencure VL-7 (9) * 20 2.9 2.6
Radii Plus ((H)) No Ramp 20 3.2 3.0
10 2.5; (B)
Ramp 20 3.1 2.8
10 2.3; (B)
Smartlite iQ2 (8) * 20 3.1 2.6
Smartlite PS ((H)) * 10 s × 2 2.7 2.5
Starlight pro (8) Fast 10 s × 2 2.7 2.4
10 2.0; (B)
Slow rise 20 2.7 2.3
Starlight sler (8) sler mode 20 3.1 2.7
sler+ mode 21 3.0 2.6
soft mode 20 3.0 2.5
the Cure Cordless ((H)) High 20 3.0 2.8
10 2.5; (B)
6; (S) 2.4 2.1
Low 20 2.4 2.4
6; (S) 2.0 1.9
T-LED (8) Slow 20 2.8 2.7
Standard 15 s + 5 s 2.9 2.9
10 2.4; (B)
Fast 5 s × 4 3.1 3.1
5 s × 2 2.7; (B)
Bonding 15 2.6 2.4
Rapid Restoration 15 2.9 2.7
Long Restoration 20 3.1 2.8
T-LED (5; turbo) Standard 15 s + 5 s 3.1 3.1
Translux Power Blue (8) Fast 20 2.6 2.2
10 1.8
Slow rise 20 2.5 2.2
Ultra-Lume LED 5 ((H)) * 20 3.0 2.5
Valo ((H)) Standard 20 3.0 2.7
High 2 s × 10 3.3 3.1
2 s × 5 2.5; (B)
Plasma; (T) 3 2.3 2.0

(A) Recommended curing times according to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions are: 10 s using “High Power” or 15 s using “Soft Start” to polymerize TetricEvoCeram and other composites. If the light guide “Power-Booster” is used only a curing time of 5 s with “High Power” or 10 s with “Soft Start” is necessary to polymerize Tetric EvoCeram shade A3.5 and lighter shades. Using “Low Power” a curing time of 30 s is necessary. Recommended layer thickness is 2 mm.

(B)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, a general curing time of 5 s x 2 for composites is recommended.

(C)  According to the composite manufacturer’s instructions, the curing time can be halved using a curing light with light intensity of 1100 mW/cm2 or more.

(D)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions; recommended curing time is 5 s for Tetric EvoCeram.

(E)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions; recommended curing time is 15 s with “High Power” for composites.

(F)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions; recommended curing time is 15 s with “Soft Start” for Tetric EvoCeram.

(G)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, the light intensity is 900-2000 mW/cm2.

(H)  Light guide diameter/dimensions are not given.

(I)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, a depth of cure of 2 mm is achieved with 10 s curing time.

(J) According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, a depth of cure of 2 mm is achieved for shades A3 and lighter after 5 s curing time.

(K) According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, a depth of cure of 2 mm will be achieved with 5 s curing time for composites with shades A3 and lighter.

(L) According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, the light intensity is adequately high to halve the curing time used with conventional halogen lamps.

(M)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, a curing time of 5 s may be used for Filtek Z250, shade A3 and Tetric EvoCeram, shade A3.

(N) The lamp cover part and a disposable tip are attached.

(O)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, a depth of cure of at least 6 mm is achieved with 10 s curing time.

(P)  According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, a depth of cure of at least 4 mm is achieved with 5 s curing time.

(Q) The lamp cover part is not attached.

(R) According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, the light intensity is 1000-1200 mW/cm2.

(S) According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions, most composites, including dark shades, need only 6 s curing time.

(T) According to the lamp manufacturer’s instructions:” Plasma in this context refers to “plasma-like” due to intense optical output and curing capacity”.

Table 2: LED curing lamp spectral characteristics: Measured and according to manufacturers

The measured light guide diameters are given in Table 2.

Comments Table 2: According to the curing lamp standard ISO 10650-2, the measured irradiance value should be no less than that given by manufacturer. Measured irradiance values (± 9% measurement uncertainty) that are higher or lower than the corresponding values given by the manufacturer are indicated. Light guide diameters given by the manufacturers are presented in Table 1.

Lamp Measured
diameter of
light guide [mm]
Manufacturer’s given values Measured values
 Light intensity (irradiance)[mW/cm2] Wavelength
range[nm]
Light intensity (irradiance)[mW/cm2] in the wavelength range of
400–515 nm
Wavelength
range [nm] > 2 mW/cm2
Wavelength [nm]
at light intensity
maximum
bluephase 7.5 HI P:               1100 430–490 1398 (> than stated) 426–499 457
LO P:               650
Soft Start: 0 → 650 (5 s)
then 1100
bluephase 16i 7 1600 ± 100 430–490 2159 (> than stated) 423–496 451
11.9 (A) 430–490 877 427–486 451
bluephase 20i 7.0 2000–2200 380–515

 

 

 

394–499

 

 

 

 

 

460

 

 

Turbo:           2000
High Power:  1200 1560 (> than stated)
Low Power:    650
Soft Start: 650 (5 s) – 1200
bluephase G2 9 High: 1200 380–515 High: 1294 High: 397–489 454
Low:    650
Celalux 7 Max. 1000 450–480 1096 440–500 467
Celalux 2 7.0 900 to 2000 (± 10%) 420–480 1050 420–482 448
Coltolux LED 9.0 > 1000 824 (< than stated) 432–494 458
Demetron A2 7.5 Max. 1100 450–470 1390 (> than stated) 436–506 466
Demi L.E.D. 7 1100 450–470 1497 (> than stated) 431–505 464
Demi Plus 7.5 1100 (Baseline) 450–470 1579 423–492 452
DioPower lighthead:
DioCure470
8 1400 450–490 453 (< than stated) 435–500 463
4 1356 440–490
Elipar Freelight 2 7.7 approx. 1000 430–480 831 (< than stated) 435–495 455
Elipar S10 8.5 1200 (± 10%) in the
wavelength range of
400–515
430–480
(Max.
455 ± 10)
1307 427–490 454
FlashLite 1401 8 ≥ 1100 460–480 790 (< than stated) 440–500 466
FlashMax (B) 4000–5000 Not stated (B) (B) 460
with cover: 7 with cover:      3860 with cover:
424–517
 without cover: 6 without cover: 4600 without cover:
423–519
FlashSoft (B) 1000–1200 Not stated (B) (B) 461
with cover: 7 with cover: 1408 (> than stated)  with cover:
429–506
 without cover: 6 without cover:
2213 (> than stated)
without cover:
426–512
L.E.Demetron II 7 800–1400 450–470 1583 (> than stated) 427–493 454
10.5 635 (< than stated)
Ledex WL-070 7.0 1000–1200 440–480
(Max. 460)
1043 432–496 458
miniL.E.D 7 1250–2000
(depending on light guide)
420–480 1590 423–488 449
Pencure VL-7 9 1000 420–480 751 (< than stated) 430–483 452
Radii Plus 7.5 1500 440–480
(Max. 460)
1139 (< than stated) 432–492 457
Smartlite iQ2 8 Not stated 450–475 720 444–501 467
Smartlite PS 9.0 Mean: 950 450–490
(Max. 460)
642 (< than stated) 439–499 465
Starlight pro 7.0 Not stated 440–480
(Max. 460)
1124 418–476 443
Starlight sler 7.0 Not stated 440–480
(Max. 460)
1331 428–493 456
the Cure Cordless 7.7 High: 1000 450–490 High: 1299 (> than stated) High: 425–487 452
Low:    500
T LED 7.0 Slow:        1000 430–490
(Max. 460)

 

428–485

 

453

Standard: 1400 958 (< than stated)
Fast:         2200
Bonding:
500 (5 s)–(5 s)–1000
Rapid restoration:
500 (5 s)–(5 s)–
2200 (5 s)
Long restoration:
500 (5 s)–(10 s)–1050–1800 (10 s)
Translux Power Blue 7 Not stated 440–480
(Max. 460)
709 427–478 447
UltraLume LED5 11.1 > 800 370–500 712 (< than stated) 400–410
430–490
405
457
Valo 9.8 Standard: 1000 395–480 1003 396–496 462
High:        1400
“Plasma”: 4500 (approx.)

  Not measured.

A According to the lamp manufacturer, use of the “parallel-walled” optic light guide will reduce the light intensity with about 50% compared with the 7 mm diameter light guide.
B Irradiance was measured with or without the cover part and without the disposable tip attached. The disposable tip will reduce the irradiance.
Table 3: Lamp battery and light intensity meter information as given by the manufacturers.
Lamp Battery charging time Battery durability Built-in light intensity meter /
battery level indicator
bluephase 2 hours before use Not stated Yes / (light indicator)
bluephase 16i Approx. 2 hours Approx. 45 minutes Yes / Yes
bluephase 20i 2 hours Fully charged: approx. 45 minutes (A) No (B) / Yes
bluephase G2 Approx. 2 hours Approx. 60 minutes No (B) / Yes
Celalux More than 2 hours 120 × 10 seconds Yes / Yes
Celalux 2 Approx. 2 hours 30 minutes Not stated Yes / Yes
Coltolux LED When new: 3 hours Not stated No / Yes
Demetron A2 Not applicable Not applicable No (B) / –
Demi L.E.D. When new: 16 hours 500 × 5 seconds No / Yes
Demi Plus When new: 16 hours
The battery’s shelf life:
300 fully charged cycles
500 × 5 seconds No / Yes
DioPower lighthead:
DioCure470
90 minutes 60 ± 10 minutes Yes / Yes
Elipar Freelight 2 2 hours; when new: 12 hours 20 min. Delivered with two batteries. Yes / No
Elipar S10 Approx. 1.5 hours Approx. 60 minutes Yes / Yes
FlashLite 1401 24 hours 25 minutes Yes / Yes
FlashMax Approx. 2 hours Approx. 200 seconds No / Yes
FlashSoft Approx. 5 hours Approx. 1000 seconds No / Yes
L.E.Demetron II At least 16 hours (B) 300 × 5 seconds Yes / Yes
Ledex WL-070 Approx. 2 hours Not stated No / Yes
miniL.E.D At least 2 hours 30 minutes Not stated Yes / Yes
Pencure VL-7 Approx. 2 hours Not stated No / Yes
Radii Plus When new: 1–3 hours 3 hours 20 minutes Yes / Yes
Smartlite iQ2 When new: at least 2 hours For several days. Recommended to charge overnight and/or between each patient. Yes / Yes
Smartlite PS When new: 10 hours Approx. 25 minutes No / Yes
Starlight pro Approx. 2 hours 320 × 10 seconds Yes / Yes
Starlight sler Approx. 4 hours (1.8 million cycles of 20 seconds) Not stated Yes / Yes
the Cure Cordless Approx. 5 hours Not stated No / Yes
T LED When new: at least 4 hours Not stated Yes / Yes
Translux Power Blue Approx. 2 hours Recommended to place and keep the hand-held device in the charger after each treatment. Yes / Yes
UltraLume LED5 Not stated Not stated No / –
Valo Not applicable Not applicable No / (Not applicable)
(A) Regular use of radiometer is recommended.
(B) The battery has an expiry date of 2.5 years from the manufacturing date.
Table 4: Lamp manufacturers, serial/identification numbers and year of testing.
Lamp Year
controlled
Manufacturer Serial/identification numbers
bluephase 2005 Ivoclar Vivadent 1562274
bluephase 16i 2007 Ivoclar Vivadent 1646618
bluephase 20i 2010 Ivoclar Vivadent 502039
bluephase G2 2009 Ivoclar Vivadent 208783
Celalux 2006 Voco GmbH 03461
Celalux 2 2010 Voco GmbH Handpiece: 302073-201
and 302048-198
Base: S/N F 818078.248
and S/N P 402071-130
Coltolux LED 2005 Coltène/Whaledent Inc 05034056
Demetron A2 2009 sds Kerr 96200557
Demi L.E.D. 2008 sds Kerr Adaptor: 30120-0003495 Base: 751014276
Demi Plus 2011 sds Kerr Handpiece: S/N 760005174
Battery: 0910
Base: part no. 921857-1
Adaptor: S/N 30120-0085361
DioPower lighthead:
DioCure470
2006 CMS-Dental Aps Hand piece: SN-DPC-01-00157 Base/light meter: SN-DPMC-01-00186
Packaging: SN-DCK-03-00196
Elipar Freelight2 2005 3M ESPE 939820001990
Elipar S10 2009 3M ESPE 939123000664
Flashlite 1401 2006 Discus Dental 06079027
FlashMax 2008 CMS Dental Handpiece: 08FM0413 Base: 211-CH3707
FlashSoft 2009 CMS Dental Handpiece: 211FS1688 Base: 211-CH4228
L.E.Demetron II 2007 sds Kerr Base/light meter: 792027169 Packaging: 762004352
Ledex WL-070 2011 Dentmate Technology Co. Handpiece: B7095 Packaging: SN: DB7092
miniL.E.D 2007 Satelec 901438-025
Pencure VL-7 2007 J.Morita Handpiece: SN 4724 Base: UD3065
Radii Plus 2008 SDI Base: 3-32496
Smartlite iQ2 2007 Dentsply B21814-H22317
Smartlite PS 2005 Dentsply Handpiece: AA 04822 Light guide: AA 02612
Packaging: Lot 04020015006
S-number: 00316
Starlight pro 2010 Mectron S.p.A Handpiece: 052MA147 Base: 072MA147
Starlight sler 2011 Mectron S.p.A. Handpiece: 307MF063 Base: 208MF063
the Cure Cordless 2008 Spring Health Products Inc Handpiece: # 6046
T LED 2011 Elca Technologies S.r.l. Handpiece: LM03856 Base: LC02392
Translux Power Blue 2007 Heraeus Kulzer Handpiece: 059JC1196 Base/light meter: 060JC1196
UltraLume LED5 2006 Ultradent 515748
Valo 2010 Ultradent Handpiece: VO3664 Packaging: Lot B4K1N
Adaptor: B4HVW

Responsible
Hanne Wellendorf, chief engineer, and Ellen Bruzell, senior scientist