Secondary caries is the primary reason for replacement of composite fillings, and clinical studies report more secondary caries when composites are used compared to amalgam in high-risk caries groups. This highlights the need for development of materials that will reduce or inhibit biofilm formation on dental materials.
The oral cavity is one of the human habitats with the highest diversity of bacterial species. It is estimated to be over 700 bacterial species that are capable of residing in this habitat. Bacteria were long thought of living as free floating, planktonic cells. However, it has become clear that the preferred form of living is in a biofilm.