In oral and orthopaedic surgery, composites can be used as implants or bone grafts. Their functions are to direct, supplement or replace living tissues. The greatest synergy of every constituent of the composite is to combine different material properties. In fact, the properties of functional composites can be customized to match those of the target tissues.
The delightful combination of a coffee and an ice cream sets the parameters for one of the most used test protocols for dental materials. The international standard for testing dental adhesives stipulates an ageing procedure in which test specimens are held repeatedly first in 5 °C cold water and then in 55 °C hot water for a large number of cycles. The result of subsequent testing invariably shows degradation in adhesive strength. It is important that this loss of bonding is limited.