Glass-ionomer cements (GIC) adheres to tooth substance but the strength of the GIC is lower than other filling materials. Even though traditional GIC products have been used for Class II restorations in pediatric patients, the longevity of the restoration is often regarded as inferior to other materials.
Although questions have been raised regarding reproducibility and animal welfare, the rabbit Draize eye test has remained an accepted method to evaluate skin irritation for many years. For the last decade, in vitro 3D skin models are developed to predict and classify skin irritation potential of chemicals. Several methods have been validated by ECVAM (European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods) and achieved regulatory acceptance internationally for replacement of the rabbit Draize test. Among the approved skin systems is the Epiderm™ system from Matek.